UN Women has a universal mandate to provide, through its normative support functions, operational activities and coordination role, guidance and technical support on gender equality, women’s empowerment and women’s rights, across all levels of development and in all regions. Under this mandate UN Women leads the work on elimination of all forms of violence against women and girls (VAWG) within the United Nations system.
VAWG continues to be the most widespread, persistent and devastating human rights violations in our world today, and remains largely unreported due to the impunity, silence, and construed stigma and shame surrounding it. Despite a growing momentum by States to eliminate and prevent all forms of VAWG, challenges persist in achieving transformative change in this area –mainly due to the tenacity of discriminatory social norms that tolerate and condone violence and inequality between men and women; the lack of coherent approaches in preventing VAWG in the first place; and the lack of access to long-term, quality, multi-sectoral services that are coordinated for survivors.
Violence against women and girls is a violation of human rights and it impedes equality, development and peace across the world. The promise of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including to leave no one behind, cannot be fulfilled without putting an end to VAWG. UN Women employs a comprehensive approach to addressing violence against women and girls, in private and public space, including investments in:
* Improving research and statistical data;
* Strengthening international norms and standards and national legislative and policy frameworks;
* Expanding coordinated, quality multi-sectoral services;
* Facilitating understanding and supporting evidence-based prevention approaches; and
* Supporting women’s rights and civil society groups.
UN Women’s work is guided by its 4-year Strategic Plan (2018-2021) which includes ending violence against women as one of its outcomes. UN Women’s work is embedded within the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, especially its General Recommendations 19 and 35; the 1993 UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women; the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the outcome documents of its reviews, as well as other human rights treaties, General Assembly, Security Council and Human Rights Council Resolutions; and the agreed conclusions of the Commission on the Status of Women; and critical regional instruments, such as Belem do Para, the Maputo Protocol and the Istanbul Convention.
RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL DATA
UN Women at global, regional and country level works with governments, civil society and academia to conduct quantitative and qualitative research to improve the understanding of the magnitude, nature, risk and protective factors and consequences of different forms of VAWG, and to generate evidence of what works and what does not work to address it. At the global level, UN Women in collaboration with WHO is responding to the need of strengthening the collection and use of VAW data through the Global Programme on Strengthening Methodologies and Measurement and Building National Capacities for VAW Data. The goal of this 5-year Joint Programme (2018-2022) is to ensure that quality data on different forms of VAW are available and collected over time to address national data gaps and meet policy and reporting commitments under the SDGs, CEDAW, and the Beijing Platform for Action. The programme aims to contribute to the strengthening and dissemination of measurement and methodologies for VAW data collection and use (including for national, regional and global monitoring and reporting requirements for SDG target 5.2 indicators); the increase of capacities of national institutions to collect VAW data according to globally agreed methodological and ethical standards; and the collection and accessibility of national VAW data for advocacy, policy and programming to end violence against women and girls.
NORMS, LAWS AND POLICIES
UN Women leads the drafting of Secretary General’s Reports, including: Intensification of Efforts to Eliminate All Forms of Violence Against Women and Girls, Intensifying Global Efforts for the Elimination of Female Genital Mutilations and Report of the Secretary General on Trafficking in Persons, which provide an analysis of trends, good practices, gaps and challenges, as well as recommendations to Member States and other stakeholders. UN Women further supports negotiations of Member States based on these reports to inform GA Resolutions on the same. UN Women also convenes the Commission on the Status of Women, providing similar support to Member States in their negotiations of Agreed Conclusions related to violence against women. At the 25 year anniversary of the Beijing Platform for Action (BPfA), UN Women together with the Regional Commissions facilitated comprehensive national level reviews on progress made and challenges encountered in the implementation of the BPfA, and the achievement of gender equality and women’s empowerment, including in the critical area of eliminating violence against women. At country-level, UN Women’s support has led to strengthened national legislation to prevent and respond to VAW, and to the adoption of national action plans for the elimination of VAW. A more detailed synopsis on UN Women’s work in this area can be obtained through the Annual Report(s).
To improve the quality of and access to comprehensive essential multi-sectoral services that respond to the immediate and long-term needs and well-being of women and girls who have experienced violence, such as intimate partner violence or sexual violence, UN Women in partnership with UNFPA initiated the ‘Essential Services Programme’ in 2013. This initiative is now a full-fledged United Nations Global Joint Programme: Essential Services for Women and Girls Subject to Violence, with WHO, UNODC and UNDP as participating UN agencies. through this joint programme, UN Women, in collaboration with all participating agencies, developed the ‘Essential Services Package for Women and Girls Subject to Violence: Core Elements and Quality Guidelines’ for the Health, Justice and Policing and Social Services Sectors, along with Implementation Guides to assist the rollout and implementation of the Essential Services Package at country level. The Programme began with 10 pilot countries and has expanded with self-starters to over 50 in 2019.
Prevention is the only way to stop violence before it occurs. The evidence-base on what works to prevent violence has evolved considerably over the past decade, including through initiatives supported by UN Women, such as the Partners for Prevention Programme in Asia Pacific. UN Women has played a key role in developing evidence-based policy and programming guidance in this area. In 2015, UN Women led the development of the first inter-agency framework on prevention, in partnership with ILO, OHCHR, UNDP, UNESCO, UNFPA and WHO. A Framework to Underpin Action to Prevent Violence Against Women (2015), promotes a common understanding of preventing violence against women for the UN System, policymakers and other stakeholders and provides a theory of change to support action. To further operationalize this framework, UN Women, partnered with various UN agencies, to develop handbooks guiding implementation of specific entry points. Those include: Global Guidance on Addressing School-related Gender Based Violence (with UNESCO); Addressing Violence and Harassment Against Women in the World of Work (with ILO); The Big Conversation: Handbook to Address Violence against Women in and through the Media (with UNESCO); A Handbook to Address Violence against Women in and through Sports (with UNESCO); Preventing violence against women in elections: A programming guide (with UNDP) and a Guidance Note on Campus Violence Prevention and Response. In 2019, with WHO, UN Women launched the RESPECT Women; Preventing Violence against Women Framework to update the 2015 Prevention Framework. A package of implementation materials for the RESPECT Framework are in process of development and will be available in 2021. In addition to policy guidance, UN Women undertakes programming in various countries across regions with various stakeholders in public spaces, in schools, in communities, workplaces, sports organizations and other institutions to address structural and systemic inequalities and change attitudes, beliefs and social norms.
Knowledge Hub on Violence against Women:
UN Women hosts one of the most extensive repositories of resources on preventing and eliminating VAWG at the Global Knowledge Platform to End Violence against Women. This hub, contains three unique portals, including: 1) The Global Database on Violence against Women, a filterable database containing information on the measures undertaken by Member States; 2) Inventory of United Nations Activities, a filterable database on the work of UN entities; and 3) The Virtual Knowledge Centre to End Violence against Women and Girls, a one-stop site providing programming guidance promising practice case studies and tools in English, French and Spanish.
UN Women also maintains a dedicated Training Site with numerous learning opportunities (online courses, face-to-face sessions, manuals and self-paced lessons) on violence against women, including introductory material on the topic, as well as dedicated materials on men and masculinities, FGM and Essential Services, among others.
Harmful cultural practices are discriminatory practices towards women and girls that are ritualized because they are performed/exercised persistently and as a result have been culturally normalized. UN Women recognizes that harmful practices take many forms and impinge upon the dignity and integrity of the individual, constituting a grave human rights violation. UN Women’s strategy on Harmful Practices focuses primarily on addressing two of the most prevalent forms, Child, Early and Forced Marriage (CEFM) and Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C). The work on harmful practices includes support to strengthen legislation, public policies and mechanisms to address impunity; capacity building of service providers and law enforcement; increasing women’s and girls’ knowledge about their rights; advocacy and awareness campaigns; work with women’s organizations and CSOs; and transforming norms. UN Women works closely with renowned activist Jaha Dukureh, CEO and Founder of the NGO “Safe Hands for Girls”, who serves as Goodwill Ambassador for the issue worldwide.
SAFE CITIES AND SAFE PUBLIC SPACES
UN Women’s Safe Cities and Safe Public Spaces Global Initiative commits to creating safe and empowering public spaces for women and girls free from sexual harassment (SH) and other forms of sexual violence against women and girls (SVAWG). Through a comprehensive human rights and evidence-based approach, cities develop practical solutions in four main action areas, including: ensuring that locally relevant and owned solutions are identified through detailed scoping studies; strengthening laws and policies on sexual harassment in public space; investing in the safety and economic viability of public spaces; and fostering transformative social norms that promote women and girls’ rights to use public spaces free from SH and other forms of sexual violence (SV). Under the Flagship Initiative, each city adapts a Global Framework and accompanying package of tools to their local context. The Safe Cities Initiative was originally launched in 5 pilot cities (Cairo, Kigali, New Delhi, Port Moresby and Quito). It has since expanded to over 50 cities, including those in the Global North.
ADDRESSING SEXUAL HARASSMENT
As a champion of women’s rights and gender equality, preventing and addressing sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) and sexual harassment (SH) within UN Women and the UN system as forms of violence against women and girls is a critical area of UN Women’s work. The organization is committed to a zero-tolerance approach for SEA, SH and all other forms of VAWG.
UN Women recognizes that addressing SEA and SH requires a culture of change that looks at the intersectionality of their root causes, including those due to race, age, disability, sexual orientation and of course, gender. Within UN-Women, the organization is thus dedicated to fostering an environment that respects the inherent dignity of all persons, which affords its personnel the opportunity to reach their fullest potential and therefore empowers them to deliver the best possible results for the women and girls it serves.
Furthermore, UN Women has ben actively engaged in the system-wide efforts led by the secretary General in pursuit of a common system-wide approach to combating SEA and SH and is collaborating with various stakeholders within the UN and beyond, using its experience and expertise on eliminating VAWG. A victim-centered approach forms the basis of all its efforts which aimed at bringing about an organizational and cultural change that end SEA and SH, which UN Women will continue to fight for until it is achieved for all.
TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN AND GIRLS
Trafficking disproportionately affects women and girls, who account for 71% of identified trafficking victims globally. UN Women works to ensure that anti-trafficking policies and initiatives comprehensively address the continuum of violence against women, and girls and the related gender dimensions of human trafficking. The work is undertaken across four key pillars: ensuring that legislative and policy frameworks are in line with international human rights standards; supporting institutions to collect relevant data, exchange information and develop comprehensive, multisectoral and gender-sensitive approaches; promoting gender equitable social norms, attitudes and behaviors; as well as increasing knowledge about the rights of women and reducing their vulnerability to trafficking and exploitation. UN Women works at country, regional and global level in different dimensions to combat trafficking in women and girls, and also provides support and inputs to other UN agencies, to ensure their programmes and interventions include a gendered and survivor-centered approach. UN Women is a member of the Inter-Agency Coordination Group Against Trafficking in Persons (ICAT) and has served as co-chair in 2019 and 2020.
UN Women is the technical lead of the Spotlight Initiative–the global, multi-year partnership between European Union and United Nations to eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls by 2030—at the country, regional and global level. The work encompasses responding to all forms of violence against women and girls, with a focus on domestic and family violence, sexual and gender-based violence and harmful practices, femicide, trafficking in human beings and sexual and economic (labour) exploitation. The initiative is being rolled-out in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America, and the Pacific.
*See also the resource links to numerous tools referred to in the narrative above and under specific measures.
In Kosovo, five survivors of domestic violence were granted ownership of apartments as part of an initiative by the mayor of Gjakova Municipality providing housing to society’s most vulnerable individuals. This example of women’s View More
In Kosovo, five survivors of domestic violence were granted ownership of apartments as part of an initiative by the mayor of Gjakova Municipality providing housing to society’s most vulnerable individuals. This example of women’s reintegration and empowerment is part of the municipality’s Coordination Mechanism Action Plan on Domestic Violence, and these plans were developed and implemented by UN Women in three municipalities throughout Kosovo. The Coordination Mechanisms include representatives from municipal gender equality office, victim advocates, police, judiciary, health and education sectors, urban planning directorate, shelters and civil society organizations. UN Women worked with municipalities to support capacity building of coordination mechanisms, police and judiciary; support a comprehensive approach to domestic violence case management; implement gender-responsive budgeting; align legislation and practices with international norms and standards; and improve implementation of monitoring mechanisms. UN Women ensured full support from local mayors and engaged them during the development of the Municipal Domestic Violence Action Plans. With this local support, the coordination mechanisms have become fully institutionalized and functional.Hide
Together with UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund, UN Women Regional Office for the Arab States launched the “Essential Services Package for Women and Girls Subject to Violence” in October 2016 in the United Arab Emirates. The View More
Together with UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund, UN Women Regional Office for the Arab States launched the “Essential Services Package for Women and Girls Subject to Violence” in October 2016 in the United Arab Emirates. The package of services was introduced to the Arab States for the first time as the launch took place on the side of the second “Investing in the Future” conference organized in the UAE by UN Women and the UAE’s “The Big Heart Foundation” under the patronage of His Highness Sheikh Dr. Sultan Bin Mohammed Al Qasimi, Member of the Supreme Council and Ruler of Sharjah. The launch was an opportunity to emphasize the importance of coordination among various multi-sectoral responses for women and girls subject to violence and offered the space for over 100 participants from civil society, academia and governmental institutions to exchange experiences about violence against women in the region.Hide
In 2016, Serbia continued to make significant improvements in multi-sector coordination and monitoring of violence against women, with substantial support from UN Women. Twenty municipalities in Serbia achieved high levels of multi-sector View More
In 2016, Serbia continued to make significant improvements in multi-sector coordination and monitoring of violence against women, with substantial support from UN Women. Twenty municipalities in Serbia achieved high levels of multi-sector cooperation in response to cases of violence against women. Professionals from the Centers for Social Work, health and educational institutions, judiciary and police participated at the case conferences on individual cases of violence and in line with the local level protocols responded to the specific needs of women victims of violence. The women victims of violence benefited from the services and protection measures provided by the local institutions in a timely, complementary and coordinated manner. The Results of the case conferences are captured in reports and published by the Provincial Secretariat for Demography, Social Welfare and Gender Equality (PSEEGE). PSEEGE and UN Women piloted a model for monitoring violence in Vojvodina Province and initiated discussions to implement the model at the national level.Hide
UN Women continued to work with the Government of Moldova and civil society organization partners to help over 1,000 women access services as survivors of violence. Through the positive deviance approach, an innovative approach to help communities View More
UN Women continued to work with the Government of Moldova and civil society organization partners to help over 1,000 women access services as survivors of violence. Through the positive deviance approach, an innovative approach to help communities drive asset-based solutions, and UN Women’s coordination role, survivors advocated concrete actions to end violence against women and were involved as key experts on eliminating violence against women in legislative, institutional and community initiatives. The number of women who sought services within the first four months of implementing this approach is a ten-fold increase compared to the scope of previous activities. Central and local public officials, civil society organizations and media were also essential actors in this approach and subsequent result. The world renown academic institutions like Oxford University and others have expressed their interest in further analyzing Moldova’s innovative experience and results and further document it for academic use. The Executive Program, run jointly by HEC Paris and the Saïd Business School, University of Oxford has invited the Moldova Country Office to present the Innovation in EVAW, and thus, to mainstream the case into their mainstream curriculum already from March, 2017.Hide
Supported by UN Women, Georgian Public Defender’s Office developed and institutionalized a monitoring tool to monitor the state shelters for survivors of violence against women on a regular basis.
Supported by UN Women, Georgian Public Defender’s Office developed and institutionalized a monitoring tool to monitor the state shelters for survivors of violence against women on a regular basis.Hide
UNIFEM, now part of UN Women, through its gender-responsive budgeting programme in South East Europe, supported civil society, which led to increased regional and municipal budget allocations in 2008 for domestic violence shelters in Bosnia and Herzegovina and amendments to the domestic violence law to ensure co-financing for shelter operations.Hide
UNIFEM, now part of UN Women, contributed to improved policies and service delivery for women survivors of violence, through its work with National Women’s Machineries, including in Ghana, Liberia and Peru; increased access to legal assistance in Ethiopia, Fiji and the Occupied Palestinian territory (oPt); and strengthened police response in Nigeria. UNIFEM deployed teams in post-earthquake settlements in Haiti to provide referrals for survivors of violence.Hide
In Central African Republic, where the current crisis has affected the social fabric of society and survivors of GBV are stigmatised, deprived of support and known to engage in risky coping strategies such as transactional sex for survival, FAO View More
In Central African Republic, where the current crisis has affected the social fabric of society and survivors of GBV are stigmatised, deprived of support and known to engage in risky coping strategies such as transactional sex for survival, FAO has partnered with UN Women to ensure that women affected by the conflict, including GBV survivors, benefit from livelihood strategies.Hide
In Afghanistan, in partnership with Civil Society Organizations and the Government, UN Women, supports 11 Women Protection Centers (WPCs) and 5 Family Guidance Centers (FGCs) in provinces of Bamiyan, Baghlan, Daikundi, Jawzjan, Kabul, Kandahar, View More
In Afghanistan, in partnership with Civil Society Organizations and the Government, UN Women, supports 11 Women Protection Centers (WPCs) and 5 Family Guidance Centers (FGCs) in provinces of Bamiyan, Baghlan, Daikundi, Jawzjan, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunar, Laghman, Nangarhar, Parwan, Samangan and Takhar. The WPCs provided 24-hour safe refuge, legal aid, health care, education (basic literacy), vocational training, psychosocial services and support for reunification with their families, while the FGCs provided mediation, family counselling, and referral to WPCs and legal aid services. The WPCs and FGCs support more than 2,500 VAW survivors annually.Hide
The programme of work to develop the Essential Services Package has been a partnership between UN Women, UNFPA, WHO, UNDP and UNODC. The 5 modules comprising the package, identify the essential services to be provided by the health, social View More
The programme of work to develop the Essential Services Package has been a partnership between UN Women, UNFPA, WHO, UNDP and UNODC. The 5 modules comprising the package, identify the essential services to be provided by the health, social services, police and justice sectors as well as guidelines for the coordination of Essential Services and the governance of coordination processes and mechanisms. Service delivery guidelines for the core elements of each essential service have also been identified to ensure the delivery of high quality services, particularly for low and middle income countries for women and girls experiencing violence. This is being supported by the development of other tools including an implementation manual and a monitoring and evaluation framework for the implementation of the guidelines in different contexts. Negotiations are underway for the formalization of a UN Joint Global Programme on Essential Services for Women and Girls Subject to Violence by the five agencies for Phase II of the work to implement the guidelines in up to ten countries.Hide