FAO promotes Safe Access to Fuel and Energy initiatives as part of the emergency response during the ongoing conflict in South Sudan. The responsibilities for collecting fuel and cooking are usually shouldered by women and girls, tasks that in crisis settings are particularly dangerous and time-consuming: during the time spent walking long distances to collect the required fuelwood, women and girls are exposed to the risk of assault, harassment and rape. In order to address the cooking energy needs of vulnerable families, and protect women and girls from GBV, FAO and partners have distributed over 2 000 fuel-efficient stoves and trained 820 women on how to use them. A further 15 000 stoves are expected to be distributed in 2016 as part of the Emergency Livelihood Response Programme. Furthermore, during 2015, FAO conducted two assessments on the fuel and energy-related challenges faced by communities in Kenya (Kakuma, Turkana County, Samburu, Kitui, Meru and Marsabit Counties) and two districts of Somalia (Hargheisa and Doolow). The studies assessed the fuel types used by households, types of cooking technologies used as well as the specific risks and challenges faced by women who are responsible for cooking, firewood collection, charcoal production and selling of woodfuels. The key findings and analysis have informed the development and design of programmes and initiatives which, amongst other things, seek to prevent or reduce the risk of intra-communal and inter-communal tension and conflict over the use of natural resources, and the prevalence of gender based violence.