In July 2010, UNODC hosted an Expert Group Meeting to review draft material for the forthcoming International Framework for Action to Implement the Smuggling of Migrants Protocol, a technical assistance tool to support States in the implementation of the Smuggling of Migrants Protocol. The draft tool recommends that the special vulnerability of smuggled migrant women to violence be borne in mind in the design, implementation and review of any measures put in place to protect women against violence. The draft provides that addressing violence against women in the context of migrant smuggling begins with addressing the underlying discriminatory norms and behaviour which manifest as increased vulnerability of women to violence, both before being smuggled, during the smuggling process and afterwards, especially when they are living as irregular migrants in or are in the custody of the destination state and/or are returned to their state of origin.
At its 17th session (April 2008), the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice requested UNODC to convene an intergovernmental group of experts to review and update, as appropriate, the Model Strategies and Practical Measures on the Elimination of Violence against Women in the Field of Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (hereinafter MSPMs), adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 52/86.The need to revise the MSPMs stemmed from the recognition that new practices, new thinking and new research have been developed since the adoption of the Model Strategies in December 1997.
In July 2010, upon recommendation of the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice at its 19th session (May 2010), the Economic and Social Council adopted resolution 2010/15 entitled “Strengthening crime prevention and criminal justice responses to violence against women” for further consideration and possible adoption by the General Assembly at its 65th session. By endorsing this resolution, the Council adopted the guidelines contained in the updated MSPMs (see annex of resolution 2010/15) which represent a comprehensive framework to assist States in developing policies and carrying out actions to eliminate violence against women and to promote equality between men and women within the criminal justice system. They are organized around eleven themes: i) guiding principles; ii) criminal law; iii) criminal procedure; iv) police, prosecutors and other criminal justice officials; v) sentencing and corrections; vi) victim support and assistance; vii) health and social services; viii) training; ix)) research and evaluation; x) crime prevention measures; and xi) international cooperation. The Council urged Member States to evaluate and review their legislation and legal principles, procedures, policies, programmes and practices relating to crime prevention and criminal justice matters, in a manner consistent with their legal systems and drawing upon the updated MSPMs, to determine if they are adequate to prevent and eliminate violence against women. Member States were also called upon to advance effective crime prevention and criminal justice strategies that address violence against women, including strategies aimed at preventing revictimization.
The Economic and Social Council, upon recommendation of the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, adopted resolution 2010/16 entitled “UN Rules for Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women Offenders (the Bangkok Rules)”. The Bangkok Rules, annexed to the resolution, which were developed to supplement the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners and the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for Non-Custodial Measures (Tokyo Rules) are made up of 70 rules.
The Bangkok Rules will be submitted to the General Assembly, at its 65th session, for its consideration and possible approval.